History of California Militia
and California National Guard Units
40th Infantry Division in Korea:
22 January 1952-27 July 1953
Unless otherwise indicated,
units listed are US Army organizations. Units of other services
or other nationalities are indicated as such on each entry. All
attachments are for all functions unless specifically qualified
in parentheses as to extent of attachment.
A. Record of Events
C. Next Higher Command
D. Assigned Units
E. Attached Units
F. Detached Units
G. Coordinates of Key Terrain Features
On 1 September 1950, the 40th Infantry
Division, commanded by Maj. Gen Daniel H. Hudelson, was called
to active duty from its status as the California National Guard
Division of Southern California, and subsequently moved to Camp
Cooke, California, where it conducted the early phases of it's
training. On 24 February 1951, the Division was alerted for overseas
shipment to Japan and departed from San Francisco at the end
of March 1951.
On 10 April 1951, the Division began arriving
in Japan and occupied various camps throughout Northern Honshu
with the Division Headquarters at Camp Schemmelfenning, near
Sendai. Now part of the XVI US Corps, the Division was given
the dual mission of defending Northern Honshu and conducting
On 22 December 1951, the Division was
alerted for Korean duty where it was to relieve the 24th Infantry
Division. The Division began preparations for a three-echelon
movement from Japan, scheduled to start on 7 January 1952. The
echelons were to be comprised as follows:
160th Infantry Regiment
143rd Field Artillery Battalion
625th Field Artillery Battalion
40th Division Artillery Headquarters
Battery A, 140th Antiaircraft Artillery
Automatic Weapons Battalion
Headquarters 40th Infantry Division
223rd Infantry Regiment
980th Field Artillery Battalion
981st Field Artillery Battalion
224th Infantry Regiment
140th Tank Battalion
The Division began the three-echelon movement
to Korea on 7 January, as scheduled and by 11 January, the 1st
echelon landed at Inchon. The 160th Infantry Regiment departed
immediately for the 24th Division's sector and completed the
relief of the 19th Infantry Regiment on 19 January. With the
landing of the 2nd echelon at Inchon on 22 January, the Division
became assigned to Eighth US Army and attached to IX US Corps.
By 28 January, the 223rd Infantry Regiment
had completed the relief of the 21st Infantry Regiment and the
CG, 40th Infantry Division, assumed sector responsibility for
the Kumsong-Chwapae-ri sector on the central front. With the
passing of sector responsibility, the 6th Tank Battalion and
5th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) became attached to the Division.
The Division was now deployed with the 223rd Infantry Regiment
on the left, the 5th RCT in the center and the 160th Infantry
Regiment on the right. Division Artillery was in support. The
224th Infantry Regiment and the 140th Tank Battalion were en
route from Japan as the month ended. A tank led, two platoon
raid by the 5th RCT, resulting in the destruction of eight enemy
bunkers, highlighted the combat activity during the period. Small
scale patrol clashes characterized the combat activity, with
numerous combat and reconnaissance patrols being dispatched by
The Division maintained it's positions
along the stable IX US Corps sector during the month.
The Division was initially deployed as
previously reported. On 3 February, the 224th Infantry Regiment
and 140th Tank Battalion landed at Inchon and began their movement
to the Division sector. The 140th Tank Battalion immediately
began its relief of the 6th Tank Battalion, which was then released
from attachment to the Division. On 10 February the 224th Infantry
Regiment relieved the 5th US RCT in the center sector, with the
5th US RCT being released from attachment at this time.
With the mission of finding, fixing and
destroying the enemy and his works at every opportunity, the
Division pursued an aggressive program of patrols, company size
combat raids, and tank and artillery attacks on prepared positions.
From 10-15 February 1952, the Division participated in Operation
CLAM UP, which was designed to lure Chinese patrols into ambush
through cessation of friendly fire and patrolling, together with
the simulation of a withdrawal.
Highlight of the combat activity was a
two-phase operation, employing artillery supported armor on 29
February. The first phase was carried out by two companies of
the 140th Tank Battalion near Kumsong and resulted in the destruction
of six bunkers, the damaging of 36 additional bunkers, and an
estimated 24 enemy Killed in Action (KIA) and 47 Wounded in Action
The second phase was conducted by the
224th Infantry Regimental Tank Company and it resulted in ten
enemy bunkers destroyed, eight enemy KIA, twelve estimated KIA
and ten estimated WIA.
The Division continued to maintain its
positions along the Kumsong-Chwapae-ri sector of the central
front until 30 March, when it was relieved by the Capitol ROK
and 6th ROK Infantry Divisions.
The Division was initially deployed with
the 223rd Infantry Regiment on the left the 224th Infantry Regiment
in the center and the 160th Infantry Regiment on the right. Division
Artillery and the 140th Tank Battalion were in support.
The Division continued the program of
patrolling so as to maintain contact while inflicting maximum
casualties and denying the enemy the opportunity of permanently
entrenching himself south of Phase Line Bill, a line parallel
to and 1000-3000 yards in front of the Main Line of Resistance
(MLR). Organic tanks were used effectively in both day and night
operations, conducting direct fire missions against enemy positions.
During the period 21-30 March 1952, the
Division was relieved by elements of the Republic of Korea (ROK)
Capitol and 6th ROK Infantry Divisions. Sector responsibility
was assumed by the ROK forces on 30 March. The Division immediately
began a movement to the 2nd ROK Infantry Division sector to effect
the relief of that unit. The 160th Infantry Regiment completed
the relief of the 32nd ROK Infantry Regiment and the 223rd Infantry
Regiment completed the relief of the 31st ROK Infantry Regiment
as the period ended.
On 1 April 1952 the Division completed
the relief of the 2nd ROK Infantry Division and assumed control
of the Kumhwa-Kumsong. The Division was deployed with the 223rd
Infantry Regiment on the left, 160th Infantry Regiment on the
right and the 224th Infantry Regiment and 140th Tank Battalion
in Division reserve. Division Artillery was in support.
On 3 April, a change in boundary between
the Division and the 2nd Infantry Division necessitated the deployment
of the 224th Infantry Regiment on line to the left of the 223rd
Infantry Regiment. This move was completed on 6 April and the
Division was now deployed west to east with the 224th Infantry
Regiment, 223rd Infantry Regiment and the 160th Infantry Regiment
on line. The 140th Tank Battalion remained in division reserve.
Battle lines remained unchanged as the
Division constructed and improved positions in the new area,
conducted patrols and numerous tank operations against enemy
positions, while sustaining several company sized probes by the
enemy. On 16 April the 224th Infantry Regiment conducted a reinforced
company size operation to seize ground west of the Outpost Line
of Resistance (OPLR) in order to strengthen sector defenses.
The operation was conducted without opposition.
The Division remained deployed as previously
reported and battle lines remained unchanged during the month.
Due to the marked increase in mortar and
artillery fire, an intensified program of bunker building and
improvement was conducted to increase the defensive capabilities
of the Division and to decrease friendly casualties.
Four company size night patrol actions
were conducted with the mission of seizing objectives and destroying
enemy personnel and installations to prevent the establishment
of positions south of Phase Line Bill. All four operations were
On 19 May, IX US Corps revised the Division
left boundary to the rear of the MLR and relieved the Division
of responsibility for the vital Kumhwa Valley, with such responsibility
being placed with the 7th Infantry Division.
The improvement and strengthening of defensive
positions and the maintenance of enemy contact through patrol
activity continued to receive primary consideration by the Division.
Deployment with the 224th Infantry Regiment
on the left, the 223rd Infantry Regiment in the center, the 160th
Infantry Regiment on the right and the 140th Tank Battalion in
reserve, the Division continued this primarily defensive mission
along the Kumhwa-Kumsong sector of the central front.
The MLR positions were unchanged until
12 June when the 160th Infantry Regiment occupied the former
OPLR in strength, under the cover of darkness, and with negative
enemy contact. The positions were consolidated, giving greatly
increased operational capability to the Regiment as it enabled
it to occupy the sector with two battalions abreast and one in
reserve. Combat activity during June was highlighted by several
company size night raiding operations with the primary mission
of seizing prisoners. The bunker-busting operations continued,
employing both tanks and towed 90mm guns along MLR positions.
Two tank operations were conducted by units of the 140th Tank
Battalion in support of company sized attacks by 6th ROK Infantry
Division elements against enemy outposts. Three tanks were lost
in the latter of these engagements.
The relief of the Division by the 2nd
ROK Division was accomplished from 26-28 June 1952. On 30 June
1952, the Division, less Division Artillery and 140th Tank Battalion,
closed into Field Training Center No. 5 to begin a period of
training and rehabilitation in conjunction with the mission of
IX US Corps reserve. Division Artillery and the 140th Tank Battalion
were placed under IX US Corps control to support the 2nd ROK
Infantry Division. On 2 June 1952, Brig. Gen. Joseph P. Cleland
assumed command of the Division.
The Division (-), occupying the position
of IX US Corps reserve, continued its activities at Field Training
Center No. 5 until 13 July, at which time it moved to a new training
center near Kapyong and resumed training and security missions
for the remainder of the period. Initially, the Division units
were located as previously reported. Division Artillery and the
140th Tank Battalion remained under IX US Corps control, conducting
missions in support of the 2nd ROK Infantry Division. On 1 July
1952 the 3rd Battalion, 223rd Infantry Regiment, was dispatched
to the Sangdong Mine area to perform a security mission. The
224th Infantry Regiment, attached to 2nd Logistical Command on
5 July 1952, left for Pusan to provide security forces for prisoner
of war enclosures in that area.
Upon completion of the movement to Kapyong,
13-19 July 1952, the Division resumed an intensive training program,
rehabilitated reserve defensive positions on Line Kansas and
provided security at IX US Corps Headquarters. The training
program included training of the individual soldier and progressed
to small unit tactics which emphasized teamwork. Extensive plans
and preparations were made to ready the Division (-) for employment
as a blocking or counterattacking force. On 6 July 1952, Brig.
Gen Joseph P. Cleland, Commanding General (CG), was promoted
to Major General. On 31 July 1952, Maj. Gen. Cleland was temporarily
assigned as IX US Corps Commander. Brig. Gen. Rogers assumes
command of the Division.
The Division (-) with Headquarters in
the Kapyong area, continued as IX US Corps reserve during the
month and conducted training which varied in scope to include
tests for battalion combat teams.
Schools for training specialists were
conducted by the Division technical services. Extensive plans
and preparations were made to prepare the Division for instant
employment as a counterattacking or blocking force should developments
necessitate such action.
The 224th Infantry Regiment remained under
attachment to 2nd Logistical Command. Division Artillery and
the 140th Tank Battalion were under the operational control of
2nd ROK Infantry Division with the mission of direct support.
The 160th and 223rd Infantry Regiments conducted training programs,
rehabilitated reserve defensive positions on Line Kansas and
provided security for the Sangdong Mine area and IX US Corps
Headquarters. On 9 August 1952, Maj. Gen. Cleland assumed command
of the Division, relieving General Rogers.
The Division remained in IX US Corps reserve,
continuing to conduct training and the rehabilitation of defensive
positions on Line Kansas, while performing various security missions.
Division Artillery and 140th Tank Battalion
continued under IX US Corps control operating in direct support
of the 2nd ROK Infantry Division. On 23 September 1952, the 224th
Infantry Regiment was relieved from its guard mission and rejoined
the Division. The 160th Infantry Regiment and 223rd Infantry
Regiment participated in battalion-size combat firing exercises.
During the first half of October 1952,
the Division (-) continued to occupy a position as IX US Corps
reserve in the Kapyong area, where it performed training and
On 16 October 1952, the Division was ordered
to relieve the 25th Infantry Division in the Paem-ihyon-ni sector.
On 21st October 1952, Division Artillery and the 140th Tank Battalion
were released from IX US Corps control. By 22 October 1952 the
224th Infantry Regiment and the 160th Infantry Regiment had relieved
the 27th Infantry Regiment and the 14th Infantry Regiment, respectively,
and the CG, 40th Infantry Division assumed sector responsibility.
The Division then passed to X US Corps control and the 5th US
RCT was attached. The Division was deployed with the 160th Infantry
Regiment on the left, the 224th Infantry Regiment in the center
and the 5th US RCT on the right. The 223rd Infantry Regiment
arrived a day later and acted as the Division reserve. On 31
October 1952, the 5th US RCT moved to Division reserve positions
after being relieved by the 223rd Infantry Regiment Division
Artillery and the 140th Tank Battalion were in support.
The Division performed a defensive mission,
maintaining enemy contact by aggressive patrol activity. Combat
was highlighted by a series of enemy attacks which ranged from
platoon (+) to battalion (-) in size. Heavy casualties were inflicted
on the enemy and the MLR was firmly in friendly hands at the
close of the period.
26 October 1952: Early in the morning,
an estimated enemy battalion (-), supported by heavy artillery
and mortar fire, attacked the positions of Companies F and G,
160th Infantry Regiment, in the Heartbreak Ridge area. During
the 1 hour and 20 minute fire fight which followed, the enemy
advanced to within 35 yards of friendly positions before being
forced to withdraw with an estimated 20 KIA and 40 WIA.
November ember 1952
The Division, with its Command Post (CP)
at Tokkol-li, was firmly entrenched in the center of the X US
Corps sector, deployed with the 160th Infantry Regiment on the
left, the 224th Infantry Regiment in the center, the 223rd Infantry
Regiment on the right and the 5th US RCT in reserve. The sector,
in most respects, was static during this period. Continued emphasis
was placed on the construction and improvement of defensive positions,
as the enemy held the sectors dominating terrain.
Numerous small-unit actions and night
patrols characterized the combat activity during the month. Tanks
continued their heavy direct fire destruction of enemy installations.
One battalion size attack was made on Heartbreak Ridge, 3-4 November
ember 1952, in which the enemy lost 131 KIA and had 450 estimated
WIA. Seven prisoners were taken.
Battle casualties for November ember -
The Division continued to occupy the center
of the X US CORPS sector during this period. The Division retained
its defense mission along a static front, and limited it's operations
to aggressive patrol activity, the development of defensive positions,
and the continued training of the reserve regiment. The Division
remained deployed as previously reported. Patrol activity showed
a definite trend toward fewer, but larger and better organized
patrols, using earlier and closer fire support. Ambush patrols,
as well as combat and reconnaissance patrols, were fully utilized.
Construction and repairs of defensive positions progressed,
with first priority on the MLR given to works on wire, trenches
Battle casualties for December - 163
The Division CP at Tokkol-li continued
to defend its sector on Line Minnesota until relieved by the
45th Infantry Division late in the month. Normal combat operations
were conducted and positions improved despite sub-zero temperatures.
The Division was initially deployed as
previously reported. On 8 January 1953, the 5th US RCT relieved
the 223rd Infantry Regiment, which then moved to Division reserve.
The relief of the Division by the 45th
Infantry Division, began on January 28 when the 224th Infantry
Regiment was relieved by the 180th Infantry Regiment. On 30 January
1953 the 160th Infantry Regiment was relieved by the 279th Infantry
Regiment and the CG, 45th Infantry Division, assumed sector responsibility.
On 31 January, the relief was completed when the 223rd Infantry
Regiment was relieved by the 179th Infantry Regiment. Division
Artillery remained in position and passed to operational control
of the 45th Infantry Division, while the 140th Tank Battalion
remained on line and was attached to the same division.
As the month ended, the Division, with
its CP at Nambakchon, was occupying the position of X US Corps
reserve, with the 160th Infantry Regiment at Hwachon, 223rd Infantry
Regiment at Kowantong and the 224th Infantry Regiment at Imje.
Combat activity during the period consisted
of an increasing number of patrol engagements and enemy probes
of the MLR. The largest of these occurred in the early morning
of 28 January 1953 when an estimated 100 enemy attacked MLR positions
of Company G, 5th US RCT, in the Punchbowl area. The enemy succeeded
in penetrating the MLR to a depth of 20 yards before being ejected.
Battle casualties in January - 191
The Division retained its assignment as
X US Corps reserve and performed a two-fold tactical mission;
to be prepared for employment as a counter-attacking force in
any part of X US Corps area, and to provide fire support to the
12th ROK Infantry Division.
The regiments remained deployed as previously
reported. On 3 February 1953, Division Artillery, under X US
Corps control, completed the relief of the 45th Division Artillery
in the 12th ROK Infantry Division sector and assumed a mission
in direct support of the 12th ROK Infantry Division. On 11 February
the 140th Tank Battalion began the relief of the 245th Tank Battalion
on MLR positions in the 12th ROK Infantry Division sector and
began missions in direct support of the 12th ROK Infantry Division
while under parent unit control. A task force from the 160th
Infantry Regiment accepted responsibility for the security of
the Sangdong Mine area on 17 February 1953.
During the period, the major effort was
directed towards training and rehabilitation. The Division training
program, inaugurated on 9 February, stressed weapons, small unit
tactics, and physical training. Plans were formulated and construction
was started on a semi-permanent Division training center.
The Division, as Eighth US Army and X
US Corps reserve, pointed its major efforts toward full preparedness
for counter-attacking or blocking missions and a training program
gauged to maintain 100 percent combat effectiveness. The Division
also had the task of giving tank and artillery support to ROK
The Division CP remained at Nambakchon,
with the regiments located as previously reported. Division Artillery
remained under X US Corps control and supported the 12th ROK
Infantry Division. The 140th Tank Battalion maintained MLR positions
and supported both the 7th and 12th ROK Infantry Divisions.
Tactical units conducted training exercises
at platoon and company level. the most extensive training operation
conducted during the period was Trainer One, the purpose of which
was to test the ability of the 160th Infantry Regiment and Division
Headquarters (-) to move from X US Corps to execute the IX US
Corps attack plan, HOOKER ONE, in the Chorwon sector. The operations
started on 21 March, involved a move of about 135 miles and proved
very beneficial to those partaking.
6-28 March 1953: The Division was designated
Eighth US Army reserve.
17 March 1953: The 224th Infantry Regiment
attached to 45th Infantry Division and moved to Wondang-ni where
it took up 45th Infantry Division reserve positions.
The Division, during most of April 1953,
remained in X US Corps reserve, in position to reinforce either
the 12th ROK Infantry Division or the 45th Infantry Division.
Training and rehabilitation continued. Late in the month, the
Division effected the relief of the 20th ROK Infantry Division
and returned to defend the northern rim of the Punchbowl on Phase
Line Minnesota (MLR).
The Division, with CP at Nambakcho-ni,
underwent a series of movements during the period. The 224th
Infantry Regiment, remaining under operational control of the
45th Infantry Division from the preceding month, relieved the
5th US RCT on line on 14 April in that Division's sector. On
19 April, the 160th Infantry Regiment was also placed under operational
control of the 45th Infantry Division and relieved the 279th
Infantry Regiment as 45th Infantry Division reserve.
The 223rd Infantry Regiment initiated
the relief of the 20th ROK Infantry Division by the Division
when it relieved the 61st ROK Infantry Regiment on line on 26
April. On 27 April the 224th Infantry Regiment and the 40th Division
Artillery (-) returned to Division control and the CG accepted
sector responsibility from the 20th ROK Infantry Division at
that time. The 160th Infantry Regiment passed from 45th Infantry
Division control to X US Corps control at this time and occupied
reserve positions. Division Artillery, previously supporting
the 12th ROK Infantry Division, left two Field Artillery battalions
in the 12th ROK Infantry Division sector. The 140th Tank Battalion
continued it's support of the 12th ROK Infantry Division with
two tank companies during the entire month.
As April ended, the Division was deployed
across the Ihyon-ni-Kalbakumi sector with the 223rd Infantry
Regiment on the right, the 224th Infantry Regiment on the left
and the 160th Infantry Regiment under operational control of
X US Corps, in reserve. The 143rd Field Artillery Battalion,
the 981st Field Artillery Battalion under X US Corps control,
and the 140th Tank Battalion remained in support of the 12th
ROK Infantry Division. On 17 April, Maj. Gen Gaither assumed
command of the Division.
Battle casualties for April - 35
The Division continued to occupy defensive
positions in the Punchbowl area on Phase Line Minnesota (MLR).
The main effort of the Division was toward improving and strengthening
the MLR and opening new and improving old access roads prior
to the rainy season.
The Division was deployed with the 224th
Infantry Regiment on the left and the 223rd Infantry Regiment
on the right. The 160th Infantry Regiment was under X US Corps
control as Corps reserve. On 27 May, the 160th Infantry Regiment
was placed under KCOMZ control with the mission of guarding prisoner
of war enclosures on Koje-do. Division Artillery (-) supported
the Division. The 140th Tank Battalion supported the 12th ROK
Infantry Division with two companies, while the 143rd Field Artillery
Battalion, still under X US Corps control, remained in support
of the 12th ROK Infantry Division during the month. On 7 May
1953, the 981st Field Artillery Battalion reverted to Division
The Division was engaged in combat during
the entire period with numerous small-scale patrol clashes characteristic
of the action.
Operation Try-out was conducted on 9 May
1953 with the mission of determining the efficiency with which
front line units could be issued gas masks.
The Division continued to occupy its previously
reported positions in the Punchbowl sector. The main effort was
directed toward strengthening the MLR, with emphasis placed on
improving the trench system. A program of relocation of crew
served automatic weapons was carried out with the view of assuring
that the most likely avenues of approach were covered to the
maximum extent with grazing fire. The Division remained deployed
as reported at the close of the previous period.
Extensive patrol activity, employing both
reconnaissance and ambush patrols, was characteristic of normal
combat activity during the period. In all, 94 patrols were dispatched
in the Division sector.
Combat activity was highlighted by an
attack on friendly positions on the night of 2 June. Following
an exceptionally heavy concentration of mortar and artillery
fire, an enemy force of 40-50 men attacked MLR positions of the
223rd Infantry Regiment in the vicinity of map coordinates DT2341.
After 30 minutes of hand-to-hand combat, the enemy was forced
to withdraw. Enemy casualties were 17 KIA, 5 estimated WIA and
one prisoner of war.
The Division continued to occupy defensive
positions in the Punchbowl sector until 10 July, when it was
relieved by the 20th ROK Infantry Division. On 11 July 1953 the
Division relieved the 45th Infantry Division in the Heartbreak
Ridge/Sandbag Castle sector, which extended from Paeam to a point
west of Inyon-ni. The Division remained in this area until 27
July 1953 when the cease-fire occurred and the Division prepared
to withdraw to the post-armistice main battle position.
While in the Punchbowl sector, the Division
was deployed with the 223rd Infantry Regiment on the right and
the 224th Infantry Regiment on the left. On the Heartbreak Ridge/Sandbag
Castle area, the 223rd Infantry Regiment was on Heartbreak Ridge,
to the left, while the 224th Infantry Regiment was in the Sandbag
Castle sector, to the right. The 160th Infantry Regiment continued
its mission, under Korean Communication Zone (KCOMZ) control,
of guarding prisoners of war on Koje-do until 20 July 1953. On
that date, the 160th Infantry Regiment disembarked at Sokcho-ri
and moved to the vicinity of Inje, where it passed to operational
control of X US Corps as Corps reserve. Division Artillery (-)
continued support of the Division during the month. The 143rd
Field Artillery Battalion remained under X US Corps control in
support of the 12th ROK Infantry Division.
Patrol activity continued during the month.
The last significant action of a combat nature took place on
27 July when the enemy shelled friendly positions for four hours
with 4700 rounds of mortar and artillery. Few casualties and
only slight damage were inflicted. Division Artillery returned
the enemy fire with approximately 11,000 rounds of artillery
Maj. Gen. Daniel H. Hudelson * - 1 June
Brig. Gen. Joseph P. Cleland - 2 June
1952-30 July 1952 (promoted to Maj. Gen. 6 July 1952)
Brig. Gen. Gordon B. Rodgers - 31 July
1952-8 August 1952
Maj. Gen. Joseph P. Cleland - 9 August
1952-16 April 1953
Maj. Gen. Ridgely Gaither - 17 April 1953**
* Commanding General at time
of assignment to Eighth US Army.
** Remained Commanding General
on 27 July 1953.
C. Next Higher
US Army * - **
IX US Corps* - 17 October 1952
X US Corps - 18 October 1952**
* Indicates unit assigned or
attached on 22 January 1952.
** Indicates unit still assigned
or attached on 27 July 1953.