California State Militia and National Guard Unit Histories
The National Guard of California (1892)
By Brigadier-General C. C. Allen, C.N.G.
 
Editorial Comments by
Colonel Norman S. Marshall and Chief Warrant Officer 4 Mark J. Denger
California Center for Military History
 
This article, which makes up the body of the text herein, was originally written by then Brigadier-General C. C. Allen, Adjutant-General of the State of California [1890-1894], and was published in The Californian, 1891-1892, Vol. I, pp. 541-563, and provides us with an interesting insight into the workings of the National Guard of California and the then newly formed Naval Battalion of the National Guard.

 

 
"An efficient military organization is a necessity. It is a part of the government; first, as a protection from external aggression, and secondly, to insure domestic tranquility in the full and complete protection of persons and property at home."

The exercise of the military power which imparts to the whole fabric of government its cohesion and strength is exerted in emergencies and in times of peace relapses into preparatory and ceremonial phases which by their apparent inutility often deceive the popular mind into depreciation of their value. Those who are responsible for the administration of military affairs and the preservation of good order in times of public danger are compelled to appeal to popular judgment to demonstrate the necessity for an efficient military organization and its retention and support.

Some very crude ideas prevail that the military organization of the State is superfluous, that there is no necessity for it, and that its abolishment would be advisable. The man at the plow sees no necessity for an armed police, but the inhabitants of a great city know very well that protection to life and property depends upon the efficiency of the local police. One man with a revolver can drive a dozen farmers from their homes. The dangerous elements that congregate in our large cities are only restrained from pillage and rapine by the fear of the armed police which, in extreme cases, is supported by the military forces of the State. That the militia has been necessary to the peace of the commonwealth, the following incidents will prove.

In 1871, one company of each of the National Guard and the Sumner Light Guard were ordered to Amador County to quell a riot growing out of a collision between the miner's league and the mill owners. Again, in 1877, the companies were called out to guard the armories, and prevent destruction of valuable property during three days' riots in San Francisco when the mob fired lumber yards and threatened the destruction of the city. The service rendered on this occasion amply illustrated the benefit to society of these organizations.

In December, 1872, Indian depredations of a serious nature occurred in Siskiyou County, where many lives were lost and much valuable property destroyed. Fifty rifles with necessary ammunition were sent to arm the citizens of that county. January 10th, 1873, sixty rifles with ammunition were forwarded to Dorris Bridge, and May 1st, a company was organized at Crescent City, Del Norte County, and armed with fifty rifles. May 15th, eighty sabers and eighty Colt's revolvers were sent to a company formed at Scott River, Siskiyou County, and on May 20th, a company of scouts was organized there for active service.

On February 28th, 1876, the troops of the Second Brigade were ordered to San Quentin, by request of the civil authorities, on account of a fire at the prison, to prevent escape of the convicts, and protect the property of the State. The conduct of the troops was satisfactory in the extreme. July 22d, the Stockton Guard, Captain Lehe, was ordered out to protect prisoners from mob violence. In 1877, the Chico Guard was called upon to assist the authorities in protecting and guarding prisoners taken from Chico to Oroville. Owing to the excitement produced by the riotous proceedings in the East, serious apprehensions were felt that evil disposed persons in San Francisco and Oakland who had made violent threats would resort to violence. General McComb, in command of the Second Brigade, made requisition for ten thousand rounds of ammunition; Captain Hanlett, of the Oakland Guard, for two thousand rounds; Captain Lehe, of Stockton, for thousand rounds, all of which were furnished. Six hundred rifles were sent to General McComb to arm recruits in his Brigade. The police force of the city at this time numbered 150, and the militia, 1,200, and were regarded as inadequate for the work at hand. So serious was the danger that in forty-eight hours there were mustered into service five thousand men in companies of 100. After three days of intense excitement and after much property had been destroyed by the rioters, order was restored and the troops returned to their civil affairs. Again in July of the same year several companies of this brigade were ordered to duty by request of the civil authorities, which prompt action served to quell the riotous populace. Five thousand dollars was appropriated by the Legislature to pay for services of the militia in San Francisco.

In April, 1882, four companies of the First Artillery, Sacramento, were ordered out to quell a riot occasioned by the murder of a prominent citizen of Sacramento. The prison was surrounded by an angry mob which threatened to take the prisoner by force and visit upon him penalty of death. Through the efforts of the officers of this command and the excellent discipline of the soldiers these designs were prevented. The Governor specially complimented the men upon the admirable manner in which they had performed their duties.

In July, 1884, upon the demand of the Sheriff of San Joaquin County, the Stockton Guard and the Emmet Guard of Stockton were ordered out to assist the civil officers in enforcing the law of that county. This is known as the "Moquelumne Grant War." Many men with their families had settled on lands that the courts had decided belonged to the railroad company, had put in crops and were resisting the officers in attempting their removal. They were well armed and expressed their determination to resist the execution of the law to the last extent. After several days of camp life the settlers surrendered, the writs were served and the troops returned to their homes. Their prompt response to the call of the Governor, and their cool and soldierly bearing while in camp evoked the commendation of the executive. The appropriation of $4,142 in payment of their services was made by the Legislature at the following session.

As to the riots of 1877, in San Francisco, when the "Safety Committee" was organized and the protection of the city was given into the hands of a self-appointed committee of citizens, the National Guard was never satisfied with the authorities on that occasion and believed that this committee was inimical to peace. The parading of the police, appointed by this committee, through the city, armed with picks handles as emblems of authority, tended to excite ridicule in the ranks of the rioters as well as among the citizens. With so efficient organization of the National Guard as we now have in that city such a condition of affairs will hardly again arise. It is admitted now that the knowledge of the fact that we have an armed and discipline force has tended to preserve peace through the troublesome riotous agitations of the past few years.

In 1886, occurred in San Francisco what is known as the "car strike." The difficulty arose on behalf of the gripmen and conductors on the Sutter Street road, regarding wages; a strike was inaugurated and efforts were made to prevent the operation of the road. A large class of the people sympathized with them. The armories of the National Guard were threatened, and fears were entertained that the arms would be seized and placed in the hands of the rioters. In consequence, guards were placed in the several armories and were maintained there for a period of forty-three days, at an expense to the State of $3,877, which was paid by an act of the Legislature the following winter.

These are but a few instances showing the uses to which the National Guard is put and its desirability as a standing organization.
Every able bodied male inhabitant of the State of California, Mongolians and Indians excepted, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, excepting ministers of religion, civil and military officers of the United States, officers of foreign governments, civil officers of this State, and all persons exempt from military duty by the laws of the United States, is subject to military duty. There are in this State 153,389 such persons liable to be called upon for this duty. The law provides that the organized uniformed militia shall be known as "The National Guard of California," and shall not exceed sixty companies. As organized it is as follows: The Governor, Commander-in-Chief; the Adjutant-General, with rank of Brigadier-General, who is ex-officio Quartermaster-General, Commissary-General, Chief of Ordnance and Chief of Staff; one Assistant Adjutant-General; one Surgeon-General; one Judge-Advocate-General; one Chief Engineer; one Paymaster-General; and one Inspector-General of Rifle Practice, each with the rank of Colonel, and fourteen aids-de-camp with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. The Division, Brigade and Regimental Commanders have each a corresponding staff except as to number of aids and relative rank.

The State troops are divided into six Brigades, and the organized force in each is as follows: First Brigade, 769; Second, 2018; Third, 414; Fourth, 423; Fifth, 400; Sixth, 150; in the Naval Battalion, 380; making a total of 4554 officers and men. Maj. Gen W. H. Dimond commands the division comprising the whole.

Brig. Gen. E. P. Johnson, Los Angeles, is in command of the First Brigade, with two regiments, the Seventh, Lt. Col. Howland, six companies; the Ninth, Col. E. B. Spileman, six companies.

The Second is commanded by Brig. Gen. John H. Dickinson, San Francisco, with the First Infantry, Col. W. P. Sullivan, Jr., seven companies; the Second Artillery, Col. Wm. Macdonald, seven companies, including one light battery; the Third Infantry, Col. Thos. F. Barry, seven companies; the Fifth Infantry, Col. D. B. Fairbanks, with six companies, the First Troop Cavalry, Capt. S. P. Blumenberg, unattached.

Brig. Gen. M. W. Muller is in command of the Third Brigade, headquarter at Fresno, with one regiment, the Sixth Infantry, Col. Eugene Lehe, six companies.

The Fourth is in command of Brig. Gen. T. W. Sheehan, Sacramento, with First Artillery, one company of which is armed and drilled as a light battery, commanded by Col. J. W. Guthrie.

Brig. Gen. J. W. B. Montgomery, Chico, is in command of the Fifth Brigade, with one regiment, the Eighth Infantry, Col. Park Henshaw, six companies.

The Sixth Brigade is in command of Brig. Gen. J. W. Freese, Eureka, with one battalion and two companies, the Tenth, under Maj. J. D. H. Chamberlin.

The First Infantry, Second Artillery and Third Infantry are located in San Francisco, also the First Troop Cavalry. The companies of the Fifth Infantry are located in San Jose, Oakland, San Rafael, Petaluma and Santa Rosa. The companies of the Sixth in Stockton, Modesto, Fresno and Visalia; the Seventh Infantry in Los Angeles, Ventura, Pasadena (the Markham Guards) and Anaheim; the Eighth in Chico, Colusa, Marysville, Red Bluff, Redding and Oroville; the Ninth in San Diego, Santa Ana, Riverside, San Bernardino and Pomona; the Tenth Battalion in Eureka and Arcata.
The office of Inspector-General of Rifle Practice was created in 1878, and the duty imposed upon him was to prescribe rules and regulations for rifle practice. He had authority to examine officers as to their proficiency in target practice, and had general supervision of all matters pertaining to this important part of a soldier's duty. It is to be regretted that these duties have been permitted to lapse into "desuetude," and that there is not that attention paid to details of target practice that the good of the service demands.

Target practice is obligatory upon every member of the National Guard. In June and September, each officer and man is required to fire ten shots, and those making a score of sixty out of a possible one hundred at these shoots are awarded a silver medal and bronze marksman bar; those making eighty per cent, a silver medal and a silver rifleman bar, and to those making ninety per cent, a silver medal and a gold sharpshooter bar. Enlisted men must have attended sixty per cent of company drills for the past year. Those making a score of ninety per cent may compete for the gold medal, which is the highest prize for marksmanship. This year the contest lies between Colonel Kellogg (retired) and Captain Adolph Huber of the Second Artillery. Interest in target practice increases every year, and the appropriation for that purpose does not cover the amount expended by the several commands by more than fifty per cent. Under the orders of 1890, when percentages were five per cent lower than in 1891, one thousand and twenty-five medals were issued, notwithstanding the increase of percentage, the number reached nine hundred and eighty, which shows a marked improvement in shooting.
 
Under the regulations governing the National Guard, no man is furnished blank cartridges which "business" is required. Should the force be ordered out to quell a riot, and the necessity for firing arise, no man is permitted to fire blank cartridges or to fire in the air. It is well that this fact be known, as the impression prevails in some quarters that a few rounds would be fired to scare the mob before actual business began.

The companies are required to drill at least three times each month, excepting in the month of December, but usually four drills are held. Armory rents and incidental expenses are paid out of the appropriation for this purpose. The allowance to each infantry and artillery company drilling as infantry is $100 per month; to the cavalry company, $150, and to each light battery, of which there are two, $200 per month; to each Regimental Headquarters, $5 per month per company in the brigade for expenses. The Major-General receives for incidental expenses $600 per annum. The allowance to the Signal Corps is $2.50 per man per month.

Annual encampments are provided for. The State pays transportation of men and horses, tents and baggage, and subsistence not to exceed $400 to each company. The attendance last summer averaged seventy-five per cent of the entire force, and was satisfactory in results. The exercises consist in drills, guard duties and other exercises incident to service in the field; the soldier is taught obedience to orders, to rely upon himself and to acquire that steadiness of purpose so necessary to military discipline. The health in all the camps was good, food abundant and well prepared, and the surgeons' reports were generally satisfactory. The discipline is better year by year, and though the frequent changes by reason of removals and expiration of service tend to demoralize the commands, there are several thousand men scattered throughout the State, who have had more or less experience in the line, and could be relied upon to fill the ranks of a very efficient armed force.

From the report of the Brigade Surgeon of one of the camps in an Eastern State, it appears that the men were seriously affected by poison ivy, mosquitoes, chiggers and fleas, and so serious were some of the attacks, that the patients were disabled from the performance of duty. The surgeon finds it necessary to prescribe a remedy for each of the above-named "enemies of good order" for future encampments, which is printed in the report of the Adjutant-General. The report proceeds: "The cyclone of Friday night, August 15th, proved very disastrous; * * * about one-third of the tents were submerged, and the calamity of longer remaining in camp could be foreseen; * * * it was the unanimous opinion of the regimental surgeons to break camp at once, and camp was abandoned at noon."

This sounds peculiar to the California guardsmen, as nothing like any of these "calamities" has ever been experienced in any camp in this State. Clear skies, pure air and perfect freedom from poison ivy, mosquitoes, chiggers, fleas and cyclones are among the experiences of our soldiers.

Last winter the Legislature authorized the formation of an additional force to be attached to the National Guard, to be known as the Naval Battalion. It is composed of four companies, or, more properly, divisions, of eighty men each-one in San Diego, Lieutenant T. A. Nerney, and Divisions B, C and D, commanded by Lieutenants J. J. Fitzgerald, C. A. Douglas and L. H. Turner. Lieutenant-Commander Fred B. Chandler commands the battalion. This organization is designed to fit men for the Navy, the new armed vessels requiring an entirely different class of men from the old sailing ships. Already there is a demand for new seamen such as will be educated in this battalion to man the new sea-coast defense vessels being constructed in San Francisco. The general Government arms the battalion, but the men are required to furnish their own uniforms. Following the old policy of doing things only by halves, as in case of the National Guard, the Government simply supplies the arms and says, "now go and fit yourselves for seamen; we will want you one of these days." Thanks to the liberality of the citizens of San Diego and San Francisco, the entire force is now well equipped. The Secretary of the Navy has notified the Adjutant-General's office that the allotment of arms has been made to this State, (which is in excess of that of any other, we having already mustered more men than either New York or Massachusetts) and that a vessel will soon be placed in the harbor of San Francisco, to be used by the battalion for purposes of drill. It will have boats and heavy guns, and a naval officer will be detailed to instruct the men in practical seamanship, gunnery, etc. A majority of the officers have had sea service in the Navy and marine, and are discharging their duties in a satisfactory manner. No provision has been made by the State for payment of armory rents and other expenses, but the officers have given liberally of their private means for this purpose. The organization should have aid from the State, and should receive the cordial support of the people of the cities in which it is located.

The command is under orders of the Commander-in-Chief, and is governed so far as practicable, by the rules and regulations of the National Guard.

By an Act of Congress, in 1882, the Secretary of War is authorized, whenever the Governor of any State bordering on the sea or gulf coast, and having a permanent camp ground for the encampment of the militia not less than six days annually, shall make requisition for the same, to furnish two heavy guns and four mortars with carriages and platforms for the proper instruction and practice of the militia in heavy artillery drill. Brigadier-General Dickinson is giving his attention to this matter and we have hopes that some suitable camp ground may be secured soon, when the requisition will be forwarded and the guns will be place in some suitable position on the coast.

General Cutting has introduced a bill in Congress repealing the century old militia law and providing for a reorganization of the National Guard of the country in harmony with modern ideas. It is still the law that militia officers shall be armed with a "spontoon," whatever that may be, and that the men be provided with equipments unknown to this generation. It also increases the appropriation for the militia of the United States from $400,000 to $1,000,000. Should this become a law we may hope to have one of the most efficient military organizations in the country.

During the late discussions in the public press of the question of war with Chili, the attention of the country was called to the standing and efficiency of the National Guard of the several States, and it was alleged that the Adjutant-General of the Army laid before the President statistics showing the strength and efficiency of this force and the condition of the militia in case demand should be made for volunteers. The National Guard of the country amounts in round numbers to one hundred thousand, and it is safe to assume that one hundred thousand more have had more or less experience in drills and in camp life. The old heroes of the late war although willing to again enter the service of the country, should their services be required, are now too far along in years to take up arms in a contest abroad. To this generation belongs the duty of defending the honor of the country, and the question of the efficiency of the National Guard of California, should we be called upon to defend our own cities, was one that was discussed among business men with much interest. I am glad to say that from the tone of the correspondence to the General Headquarters of Guard, the greatest enthusiasm was manifested by the rank and file, and they showed a willingness to take any part that would be assigned them, should war be declared. These men are patriotic, they love our institutions and are willing to risk their lives in the defense of the country. It is not boasting to say that we are a great nation, and the intelligence of our soldiery has no equal anywhere, and it is not confined to any locality. Should the nation be engaged in war, the young men of the South and the East would vie with the North and the West in deeds of heroism and self-sacrifice. Whatever small politicians may say, we are one people, one in patriotism, one in devotion to the honor of the flag.

Another feature of the National Guard of California is the fact that politics is not permitted to enter the organization and political discussions are discountenanced. Some of the prominent officers served in the Confederate army, while their regimental associates fought against them in the late war. In the selection of general officers, the Commander-in-Chief has shown that the question to be considered was as to their qualifications, and his appointments have met the approval of the friends of the organization. His earnest interest in the Guard has been shown on all occasions, particularly during the session of the Legislature when, had he not personally appealed to leading members of that body, the appropriation would have been reduced to such an extent that the organization could not have been maintained. Economy is demanded in the expenditures and strict accounting of moneys expended as required. The taxpayer will willingly vote the necessary appropriations if he is convinced that the results contemplated in legislation will be secured.
 
Prior to April 1st, 1889, the Signal Corps, composed at first of details from various companies, and later organized under a law passed by the Legislature in 1887. These Corps were under the command of Regimental Signal Officers, and consisted of from ten to fourteen men each.

But Major E. A. Denicke, Signal Officer of the Second Brigade (now Lieutenant-Colonel and Division Signal Officer), who had served in the U.S. Signal Corps during the Civil War, soon perceived that detachments of so few men could not perform practical work to much advantage, and obtained the introduction into the State Legislature of a bill authorizing Brigade Signal Corps. This bill became a law early in 1889, and in April of that year the Signal Corps of the Second Brigade was organized. Its charter members were members of the Regimental Corps of the First and Fifth Infantry regiments. It soon completed its limit of membership-forty. The Corps was under the command of the Brigade Signal Officer, but was without company officers. This deficiency was remedied in part by the appointment of First Sergeant W. E. Brown to the office of First Lieutenant and Signal Officer of the First Regiment, and detailing him to the command of the Corps in November, 1889. In June, 1890, Sergt. C. J. Evans of the Corps was appointed Signal Officer of the Second Regiment, and detailed for duty with the Corps. This arrangement continued until 1891, when the law was amended to provide for company officers of each Brigade Signal Corps, so that at present the Corps consists of forty men, and has officers a Captain and a First Lieutenant.

The Corps went into camp with the Second Regiment, at Monterey, in 1889, again with the Second Brigade, at Santa Cruz, in 1890, and also in 1891.

Although its duties call for mounted service, it has not, until lately, been provided with the necessary equipments. A few horses, however, were taken into camp in 1891, and the experiment proved so successful that it is expected that the entire Corps will be provided with mounts at the next camp, as forty saddles and bridles have just been re-issued for its use.

The drill of the Corps has been extended to such infantry movements as are necessary, signaling with wands, flags, torches and heliographs, the use of telescopes and the establishing and changing of stations.

The longest ranges of flag signaling have been twelve miles and of heliographs eighteen miles. But it is hoped that, as it has now equipments for mounts, it will demonstrate its usefulness at greater ranges.

The members make frequent short trips to points around the bay for the purpose of signaling, and the Corps has had several bivouacs and minor camps, at which much experience was gained.

Lately, several lines for the transmission of messages have been established in San Francisco for use in case of riot, etc., and it is purposed gradually to extend these lines into the country surrounding the bay.

The present officers connected with the Corps are Major D. E. Miles, Brigade Signal Officer, and Captain Charles J. Evans and First Lieutenant Abbot A. Hanks, company officers. Although scarcely three years old, the Corps has provided itself with a supply of tents, cooking utensils and other camp equipments.

There is also one company of Cadets in San Francisco, composed of students attending the Boys' High School, which is attached to the First Infantry. The officers receive warrants and hold their positions during good behavior or until the leave the school. This is the only Cadet Company in the State and no more will be authorized as the appropriation for arms and equipments is not sufficient to meet the increased demand.

Under the law the students of the University are organized into a body known as the "University Cadets." The officers, between and including the ranks of Second Lieutenant and Colonel, are selected by the Chief Military Instructor, with the assent of the President of the University, and receive their commissions from the Governor. The arms and equipments are received from the General Government, and the military instructor is detailed by the Secretary of War. Upon graduating or retiring from the University, such officers may resign their commissions or hold the same as retired officers of the University Cadets, liable to be called into service by the Governor in case of war, invasion, insurrection or rebellion.

There are four Signal Corps, in the National Guard attached to the First, Second, Third and Fourth Brigades, respectively, all doing excellent work. They are equipped with heliographs, flags and other necessary properties. The Corps of the First Brigade has a membership of twenty men commanded by Maj. M. T. Owens, Signal Officer of the First Brigade, and one First Lieutenant; the Brigade Corps commanded by Maj. D. E. Miles, has a Captain, a First Lieutenant and forty men; the Third has ten men commanded by Maj. M. DeVries, and one First Lieutenant, and the Fourth has ten men under Maj. W. H. Sherburn, and one First Lieutenant. The service performed by these commands while in camp was excellent and successful signaling was done to a distance of several miles. Some work by Corporal Wm. A. Burr, First Brigade, was worthy of special mention. He has made a map of the coast heliograph system,* herewith shown, extending in Southern California more than one hundred miles in direct lines, with bases at Pt. La Jolla Soledad, near San Diego, San Clemente Island in the Santa Barbara Channel and San Pedro Hill, near San Padro. He has also plotted a system of coast stations from these points to Sonoma Mountain, Mt. Diablo, Mt. Hamilton and points near San Francisco. More than twenty-five stations are designated on this map north of the Tehachepi which could be utilized should the necessity arise for communicating by signals. It is questionable, however, if more than two signal corps should be maintained. In case of demand for this kind of service a detail of practical signal men could be readily brought from either Los Angeles or San Francisco.

The first military company formed in this State was July, 1849, under Sherman was appointed Major-General of the State forces, but owing to disagreements with the Governor, resigned in 1856.

The organization of the militia was by Act of the Legislature in 1861. It provided that the persons liable to military duty should be divided into two classes; all whose names appeared on the muster rolls of a military company were designated as the "organized militia," and all others as the "enrolled militia," and made some slight provision for arming, clothing and disciplining the organized force. The Act of 1862 provided for the calling out of the entire body of the militia, if necessary, to preserve the peace.

In 1864, a State military fund was created by the levy of two dollars upon each male inhabitant of the State, twenty-one years of age and over, California Indians alone exempted. John Chinaman had not been considered up to that time, but he is not forgotten since, and is not excepted in the matter of taxation for all purposes.

The Statute of 1866 authorized the formation of sixty companies to `be known as "The National Guard of California," but only forty companies were mustered. All companies were required to meet for drill at least once in each month, but in San Francisco and Sacramento they were required to drill once a week. It provided for three parades each year, the fourth of July, the ninth of September (Admission Day) and for target practice. The law provided further that all persons in the military service should be exempt from the performance of jury duty, payment of road tax and head tax of every description, and from service on posse comitatus. Horses, arms, and equipments were exempt from execution, and after seven years' service, a man could demand and receive a certificate of exemption from the above-named duties, except in time of war. This is still the law. The appropriation was fifty dollars per month to each infantry and cavalry company, and to each light battery twenty-five dollars per month for each gun, for armory rents; to the commanding officer of each regiment fifteen dollars per month, and to each Brigadier-General one dollar per month for each company in his command. One and one-fourth cents on each one hundred dollars was levied on all property for military purposes.

The new Drill Regulations of the U. S. Army, adopted by this State, make many changes in the organization necessary. They provide for two or more battalions to each regiment with a Major in command of each. It is charged with some truth, that our system is already "top-heavy" with officers, and that the additional officers increase its heaviness. But our present organization is in accordance with that adopted by the Government and to conform to the new order of things, it will be necessary to recruit the companies to seventy-four men each. One difficulty arises in the fact that the appropriation for clothing is nearly exhausted, and no provision is made for uniforming any more men than we now have on the rolls. There are now sixty companies with three thousand seven hundred and ninety-three enlisted men, being an average of sixty-three men to a company, so that when the authority to clothe the additional number necessary, to conform to the new Regulations is conferred by the Legislature, we will have the new battalion formations. All officers are required to furnish their own uniforms and equipments, and their duties are performed without cost to the State, except where traveling under orders when actual expenses are allowed.

One of the most discouraging hindrances to the success of the National Guard is the seeming indifference of many business men to its welfare. They have large manufacturing and mercantile houses in which thousands of dollars are invested and more than any one class are dependent for success upon an orderly community. In times of violence they are the first to cry out and are the most anxious for the enforcement of the law. They have in their employ a great many young men connected with the military. Are the latter to bear the burdens of the soldiers, stand as sentries at the doors of employers, take the risks of attacks by riotous mobs and give their best days in preparing to satisfactorily perform the duties of armed defenders of the laws, and as now be met with threats of discharge by employers, in case they are ordered to camp or to parade? Which class has the greater interest in good order?

The guard of this State is not a regular force; it does not serve for pay; it gives its time and brains and honest efforts to the work in hand, practically free of cost to the State. At the very least no member of the guard ever receives an adequate return for the time, money and labor he puts into the work, unless it be form the consciousness that he has in some small measure performed his duty to the State, and it is but proper that there should be recognition, not to any particular locality or individuals, or class of individuals, but that all the various districts that contribute to the maintenance of the guard should, in some substantial manner, receive acknowledgment for the services rendered.

The National Guard of California is an educational organization. It teaches and enforces discipline, it develops self-reliance and soldierly bearing, it instills in the minds of the young men that love of order and protection to life and property upon which alone the peace of the country is assured. The soldier feels that he is a part of the government and has within him a feeling of pride of citizenship that adds to the glory of being one of the great whole.
 
 
 
 
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Updated 23 June 2017