California Military History
San Francisco Bay Area's Muwekma-Ohlone Tribal Members in World Wars I and II.
By Alan Leventhal

A Call to War: Muwekma Men Enlist in the U.S. Armed Forces: World War I

Even before California Indians legally became citizens in 1924, prior to and during America's entrance into World War I, at least six Muwekma men joined 17,000 other Native Americans and served in the United States Armed Forces in the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps. These Muwekma men enlisted through the San Francisco Presidio and Mare Island and four of them are buried at the Golden Gate National Cemetery:


Private Antonio (Toney) Guzman
U.S. Army, Battery F, 347th Field Artillery Regiment, 91st Division, American Expeditionary Force.

Toney Guzman was born on March 27, 1890 either in Centerville or on the Niles Rancheria. He was the son of Muwekma Indians Francisca Nonessa and Jose Guzman. Toney enlisted in the U.S. Army and he fought in the Meuse-Argonne (September 26 to October 8, 1918), Ypres-Lys, and Lorraine campaigns in France. Toney served in the Army from April 29, 1918 and was honorably discharged at the San Francisco Presidio on April 26, 1919.

The 91st Division was known as the "Wild West Division." The Division's shoulder patch was a green fir tree referring to its origin at Camp Lewis in the Pacific Northwest. The Division was deployed to France in August, 1918 and fought with great distinction. In the Ypres-Lys campaign, the Division served in the Flanders Army Group, under the command of the King of Belgium. The Division was headquartered adjacent to Flanders Field. Five members of the Division earned the Congressional Medal of Honor. The 347th Field Artillery Regiment was assigned 4.7" inch guns, and the 91st Division received the following Victory Medal Clasps: Ypres-Lys, St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne and Defensive Sector. In October 1931, Toney Guzman and his brothers, enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs under their mother's BIA Application #10293. On his WW II Registration Card dated April 27, 1942, Toney was identified as "Indian". Toney passed away on October 8, 1948 and was buried on October 12, 1948 at the Golden Gate National Cemetery (Section J, Grave 254).


Private Alfred (Fred) Guzman
U.S. Army, Company C, 110th Infantry Regiment, 28th Division, American Expeditionary Force under Brigadier General T. W. Darrah.

Alfred Guzman was born on the Pleasanton Rancheria on June 27, 1896 to Francisca and Jose Guzman. Prior to the declaration of War, Fred Guzman had served in the National Guard at Fort Mason in San Francisco in 1917. Afterwards he enlisted in the U.S. Army, and served in the 28th Division, 55th Brigade Infantry, 110th Infantry, Company "C" and fought in the major battles at Ourcq-Vesle (July 28, 1918), Second Battle of the Marne (July 15-August 5, 1918), Meuse-Argonne Offensive (September 26 to October 8, 1918), and Havrincourt (October 8 - November 11, 1918) in France. \

The 28th Division fought in the following campaigns: Champagne-Marne, Aisne-Marne, Oise-Aisne, Meuse-Argonne, Champagne (1918), Lorraine (1918). The cost in lives of these six campaigns was 4,183 casualties including 760 dead. The six fleurs-de-lis on the regimental insignia commemorated their World War I service. The 28th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army formed in 1917 at the outbreak of World War I. It was nicknamed the "Keystone Division", as it was formed from units of the Pennsylvania National Guard; Pennsylvania is known as the "Keystone State". It was also nicknamed the "Bloody Bucket" division by German forces in WWII, after its red insignia. Fred Guzman served from July 28, 1917 and was honorably discharged at San Francisco Presidio on May 31, 1919. On his WW II Registration Card dated April 25, 1942, Fred is identified as Indian. Fred Guzman died on November 3, 1961 and was buried at the Golden Gate National Cemetery (Section Y, Grave 1059).


Sergeant Joseph Aleas
U.S. Army, Company D, 21st Machine Gun Battaion, 7th Division, American Expeditionary.

Joseph Aleas was born on the Alisal (Pleasanton) Rancheria on May 11, 1893 and was the son of Margaret Armija. He enlisted in the US Army on June 30, 1916. According to Armija-Thompson family recollections, he was a good horseman and wanted to fight against Pancho Villa had led approximately 1,500 Mexican raiders in a cross-border attack against Columbus, New Mexico, in response to the U.S. government's official recognition of the Carranza regime. Villa's troops attacked a detachment of the 13th U.S. Cavalry, seized 100 horses and mules, burned the town, killed 10 soldiers and eight of its residents, and made off with ammunition and weapons. President Woodrow Wilson responded by sending 6,000 troops under General John J. Pershing to Mexico to pursue Pancho Villa and his troops. This military mobilization was called the Punitive or Pancho Villa Expedition.

Later, Joseph Aleas served in France in the 21st Machine Gun Battalion, 7th Division (its Hourglass insignia dates back to 1918). Organized originally to serve in the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) during World War I, the U.S. Army's 7th Infantry Division was created at Camp Wheeler, Georgia on December 6, 1917 and it fought in Alsace-Lorraine, France during the war. The division also served as an occupation force in the post-war period. On October 10-11, 1918 the 7th was shelled for the first time and later it encountered gas attacks in the Saint-Mihiel woods. Defensive occupation of this sector continued from October 10th to November 9th during which the infantry regiments of the 7th Division probed up toward Prény near the Moselle River, captured Hills 323 and 310, and drove the Germans out of the Bois-du Trou-de-la-Haie salient. After 33 days in the line of fire the 7th Division had suffered 1,988 casualties, of which three were prisoners of war. Thirty Distinguished Service Crosses were awarded members of the 7th Division.

Joseph Aleas was honorably discharged at Camp Funston, Riley, Kansas on July 9, 1920 and was awarded the World War I Victory Medal and the Bronze Victory Button. Joseph Aleas enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs in October 1931 (BIA Application # 10299). On May 24, 1955 Joseph enrolled during the second enrollment period with the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Joseph Francis Aleas passed away July 13, 1964 and was buried at the Gold Gate National Cemetery Plot Z, grave 2597.

Graves of Muwekma Men Joseph Aleas, Fred Guzman and Toney J. Guzman
Private John Michael Nichols
U.S. Army, 59th Artillery Regiment, Coast ArtilleryCorps [TD (Tractor Drawn 8" Howitzers), HD (Harbor Defense)], American Expeditionary Force

John was the older brother of Henry Nichols (see below) and he served in the U.S. Army from 1914 to 1920. John enlisted on October 27, 1914 at Fort McDowell on Angel Island. He fought in France serving with the 59th Coast Artillery Regiment which was attached to the 32nd Brigade, C.A.C.. The 59th was engaged in the St. Mihiel offensive and the Meuse-Argonne offensive. John was discharged at Fort Winfield Scott at the SF Presidio on June 4, 1920. John M. Nichols was listed as an Indian on the 1930 Federal Census along with his son Alfred in Santa Cruz County. On John Nichols's Draft Registration Card dated April 27, 1942 he was identified as residing at the Veteran's Home in Napa (Yountville), California and he had resided there from 1941 to 1953. John Nichols died in April 1968 while living in Stockton, California. Citations: Victory Medal with France, Defensive Sector, St. Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne bars.


Fireman 1st Class Henry Abraham Lincoln Nichols
U.S. Navy, Battleships USS Arizona and USS Oklahoma.
Henry Nichols was born in Niles on February 12, 1895 to Charles Nichols and Muwekma Ohlone Susanna Flores Nichols. Henry enlisted on May 23, 1917 and first served on the USS Albatross. By December 31, 1917 he was transferred to the Battleship USS Arizona, and later on March 26, 1918 he was transferred again to the Battleship USS Oklahoma. During World War I Henry Nichols served in the North Atlantic and was on escort duty in December 1918 when the Oklahoma was serving as escort during President Woodrow Wilson's arrival in France at the end of the war (November 11, 1918). The Oklahoma returned to Brest, France on June 15, 1919 to escort home President Wilson who was transported on the USS George Washington from his second visit to France. Henry Nichols was honorably discharged at Mare Island on August 14, 1919 and was issued the World War I Victory Medal. On Henry Nichols Draft Registration Card dated April 27, 1942 he is identified as Indian. Henry Nichols passed away on January 5, 1956 and was buried at the Golden Gate National Cemetery (Section L-5, Grave 7455).
Sergeant Franklin P. Guzman
U.S. Marine Corps, 81st Company, 6th Machine Gun Battalion, 4th Marine Brigade, 2nd Division, American Expeditionary Force

Franklin was born on the Alisal Rancheria on January 15, 1898 and was the son of Pleasanton Indians Teresa Davis and Ben Guzman (who later died in 1907). He was also the nephew of Toney and Fred Guzman. Franklin was listed on the 1910 Federal Indian Population Census for "Indian Town", Pleasanton Township. He enlisted on October 20, 1916 while working near Sacramento, reported for duty on October 25, 1916 and was assigned to Company "B" Marine Barracks, Navy Yard, Mare Island. On May 28, 1917 Franklin was promoted to the rank of Corporal. By March 31, 1918, he earned an Expert Rifleman Badge and a Marksman Badge and by April he was assigned to the 111th Company, 8th Regiment. In May, Franklin was transferred to the 15th Company 1st Machine Gun Battalion at Quantico, Virginia and he was promoted to Sergeant on May 22, 1918. The 1st Machine Gun Battalion sailed on May 26, 1918 on the USS Henderson and disembarked in France on June 8, 1918. The 1st Machine Gun Battalion was later redesignated as the 6th Machine Gun Battalion in France. From September 12 to 16, 1918 the brigade was engaged in the St. Mihiel offensive in the vicinity of Remenauville, Thiaucourt, Xammes, and Jaulny.

On September 16, 1918, Franklin Guzman was wounded in the left thigh and from September through December he was placed in various Field and Base Hospitals in France, and finally transferred back to the States on December 16, 1918. Franklin remained in recovery at the US Navy Hospital at Norfolk, Virginia until he was honorably discharged from service as a Sergeant on June 27, 1919.

Franklin's Battalion participated in the Chateau-Thierry sector (capture of Hill 142, Bouresches, Belleau Wood) from June to July, 1918; Aisne-Marne (Soissons) offensive from July 18 to July 19, 1918; Marbache sector, near Pont-a-Mousson on the Moselle River from August 9 to August 16, 1918; St. Mihiel from September 12 to September 16, 1918; and later the Meuse-Argonne offensive (October 1 to 10, 1918, and November 1 to 10, 1918). Franklin passed away on May 30, 1979 and was buried in the Riverside National Cemetery (Section 8, Grave 2826).

The Outbreak of World War II: Muwekma Men Once Again Answer the Call to War

During World War II, almost all of the Muwekma men served in the United States Armed Forces both in the Pacific and European theaters and stateside.


Private First Class Hank A. Alvarez
U.S. Army, 101st Airborne Division, 106th Infantry Division and 12th Armored Division.
Hank was born on February 27, 1922 in San Jose. He spent his childhood in Santa Cruz, Alvarado and Brentwood. While living in Brentwood, on March 18, 1932, his mother Dolores Marine enrolled herself and her children with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA Application # 10681).

Hank enlisted at the San Francisco Presidio and served from December 28, 1942 to December 15, 1945 in the 101st Airborne Division. While serving in the 101st Airborne Division he landed behind Utah Beach in Normandy. He was later reassigned to Company B, 423rd Infantry Regiment, 106th Infantry Division and continued to fight in France, Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany. He regiment saw action at Saint Laurent sur Mer and Saint Nazaire, France, and near Malmedy, Belgium*. Later, Hank was reassigned back to the 101st Airborne Division and served with their 326th Airborne Engineer Battalion during the Battle of the Bulge at Bastogne and at the Ramagen Bridge crossing the Rhine River in Germany. He returned home from Europe with the 82nd Armored Medical Battalion, 12th Armored Division.

After landing in Europe Hank's units fought in the following campaigns with the 101st Airborne Division: Ardennes, Rhineland (GO 40 WD 45), and Northern France (GO 33 WD 45). Hank was issued the following medals and badges: Sharpshooter M1, WWII Victory Medal, and European African Middle East Campaign Medal. The 101st Airborne Division and the 106th Infantry Division earned Presidential Unit Citations. Hank was honorably discharged at Camp Beale, California on December 15, 1945.

Years later, Hank enrolled himself and his family with the BIA on April 26, 1950 during the second enrollment period. During the early 1960s Hank served in a leadership position along with his brothers and sister to save the Tribe's Ohlone Indian Cemetery from destruction. Hank has served on the Muwekma Tribal Council since 1992 and is presently the oldest surviving member of the Verona Band of Alameda County and oldest veteran in the Tribe.

* Editor's note: The 423rd Infantry Regiment was destroyed in Schnee Eifel salient on 19 December 1944 near Schonberg. Ironically the regiment that replaced it in the 106th Infantry Division's Order of Battle was the California National Guard's 159th Infantry Regiment whose traditional regimental area was almost identical to the traditional tribal areas of the Muwekma-Ohlone.


John (Johnnie) Abraham Alvarez
U.S. Army Air Forces

Older brother of Hank Alvarez, John Alvarez was born on May 24, 1914 in San Jose and spent most of his life living in Santa Cruz. He was enrolled with his siblings with the BIA in March 1932. John enlisted in U.S. Army on October 22, 1941 just prior to America's Declaration of War against Japan, Germany and Italy and he served as a Pfc. in the U.S. Army Air Corps in the Pacific Theater. A letter was sent to Dolores Marine Alvarez Piscopo Galvan that her son John while serving overseas was missing in action, however, although the details are now clouded he was either liberated or saved and he continued to serve. John was honorably discharged on November 20, 1945 and received the American Defense Service Medal, American Campaign Medal, WWII Victory Medal, and Honorable Service Lapel Button WWII. John Alvarez died on March 6, 2002.


Technical Sergeant Francis Salvador "Sal" Samuel Dominic Piscopo
U.S. Army, 4th Armored Division

Salvador was born in San Jose on October 1, 1923 and was a younger brother of Hank and John Alvarez. He went by the name of Samuel Dominic by the time he enlisted in the US Army. Sal was enrolled on March 18, 1932 with the Bureau of Indian Affairs with his siblings under his mother Dolores Marine's BIA Application # 10681. Sal spent his younger years in Brentwood and San Jose.

Sal enlisted in the U.S. Army on January 25, 1943. He attained the rank of Technical Sergeant (E-7). After landing in France, Sal's unit was assigned to the 14th Mechanized Cavalry Group's 18th Cavalry Squadron which was attached periodically to the 2nd Infantry Division, 7th Armored Division, XVII Airborne Corps and to Patton's Third Army. The Third Army had begun the Lorraine Campaign by August 1944 and reached the Moselle River near Metz, France. By December 1944, Salvador's tank division turned north to relieve the surrounded and besieged 101st Airborne Division at Bastogne in the Ardennes On December 16, 1944, the 14th Mechanized Cavalry Group received the full brunt of the German winter counteroffensive in the Battle of the Bulge. The full weight of this drive was felt early that morning when more than half of the 18th Cavalry Squadron became surrounded, and were captured or killed that night.



 2nd Infantry Division

 7th Armored Division

 XVIII Airborne Corps

 Third Army

On Salvador Piscopo's uniform at the time when his photograph was taken he had four service bars representing two years of overseas service and also one three year reenlistment service stripe. Sal was wounded when his tank was hit by German anti-tank fire. He carried shrapnel in his chest all of his life. He also was captured by the Germans and was issued a Prisoner of War Medal with three Bronze Stars, Good Conduct Medal and World War II Victory Medal.

Sal was hospitalized after being liberated and after he was discharged in 1945. His brother Hank Alvarez said that Sal's nickname was "Fade Away" meaning that "no one can find him, one day he's around and then he would be gone for weeks and then show up again". Sal was discharged at Camp Beale in 1945. Salvador died on September 21, 1968 and is buried in the Disabled Veterans section of Oak Hill Cemetery in San Jose, California.


Private Philip Galvan
US Army, 2nd Armored Division

Philip was born in September 1926 in Alvarado, Alameda County and was the younger brother of Sal Piscopo. He was enrolled along with his siblings with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on his mother Dolores Marine's BIA Application # 10681. Philip enlisted in the U.S. Army on April 13, 1944 and was sent to the Monterey Presidio and afterwards he was stationed at Fort Benning, Georgia. Fort Benning was the home of the 2nd Armored Division called "Hell on Wheels". Ft. Benning The core units of the 2nd Armored Division were the 41st Armored Infantry Regiment, the 66th Armored Regiment, the 67th Armored Regiment, the 17th Armored Engineer Battalion, the 82nd Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, and the 142nd Armored Signal Company. The 2nd Armored had three artillery battalions (the 14th, 78th, and 92nd). The Division also had support units, including the 2nd Ordnance Maintenance Battalion, a Supply Battalion, the 48th Armored Medical Battalion, and a Military Police Platoon. Some of the units were attached to the 41st Infantry Division in Europe Philip was honorably discharge at Camp Beale in 1946. During the 1960s Philip and his siblings were responsible for protecting the Tribe's Ohlone Indian Cemetery from destruction. Later, Philip joined the editorial board of the American Indian Historical Society's Indian Historian publication journal. Philip also served as the Secretary for the Ohlone Indian Tribe from 1965 t0 1971. Philip Galvan is still living and is presently the caretaker of the Tribe's Ohlone Indian Cemetery, located near Mission San Jose.


Michael Benjamin "Ben" Galvan
U.S. Navy and U.S. Army

Ben was born on June 23, 1927 in Alvarado and was the last "formal" member of the Federally Recognized Verona Band of Alameda County. In March 1932, he was enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs under his mother Dolores Marine Alvarez Piscopo Galvan's BIA Application # 10681. After serving in the Merchant Marines because he was under aged, he served in the Navy on board the USS Enterprise. The USS Enterprise participated in nearly every major engagement of the war against Japan, including the Battle of Midway, the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, various other air-sea actions during the Battle of Guadalcanal, the Battle of the Philippine Sea, and the Battle of Leyte Gulf, as well as participating in the "Doolittle Raid" on Tokyo. USS Enterprise has the distinction of earning 20 battle stars, the most for any U.S. warship in World War II. After being injured during combat on the USS Enterprise, Ben requested to be transferred to the U.S. Army/Army Air Corps. At the end of his service, he reenlisted in the service on January 15, 1946 at Camp Beale, Marysville, California. On December 4, 1951 Ben enrolled himself and his family during the second BIA enrollment period. During the early 1960s he was involved is saving the Ohlone Indian Cemetery from destruction and in 1965 Ben became the first chairman of the Ohlone Tribe. Ben served as the chairman of the Ohlone Tribe for thirteen years from 1965 to 1978. Ben Galvan passed away on April 13, 1987.


Private First Class Thomas Joseph Garcia
U.S. Army, Company F. 358th Engineer General Service Regiment.

Joseph Garcia was born on December 12, 1912 on the Alisal Rancheria near Pleasanton. Both his mother Mercedes Marine and his father Joseph Armijo Garcia were Muwekma Ohlone Indians. After the death of his mother in 1914, Joseph was adopted by his godmother Phoebe Inigo Alaniz who was also a member of the Verona Band Indian Community. He enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs with his step-mother Phoebe Alaniz on October 7, 1930 (Application # 10301) and spent most of his life in Livermore.

Thomas Garcia enlisted on July 30, 1942 at the San Francisco Presidio and he served until November 27, 1945. On January 10, 1943 the 358th Engineer General Service Regiment was activated at Camp Claiborne, Louisiana and they departed the U.S. for Europe on July 1, 1943. The Regiment landed in France on August 24, 1944 and crossed into Belgium November 27, 1944 and participated in the Normandy, Northern France, Rhineland, and Central Europe Campaigns. He was honorably discharge on November 27, 1945. On April 22, 1953, he enrolled during the second BIA enrollment period. Thomas Garcia passed away on February 9, 1956 and was buried Golden Gate National Cemetery (Section Q, Grave 59).


Private First Class Ben L. "Angel" Guzman
U.S. Army.

Bennie Guzman was born on October 2, 1922 in Niles. His father was Fred Guzman who had served in the 28th Infantry Division during WW I. Bennie enlisted on November 5, 1942 at the Presidio of San Francisco. He first went to Camp Niles, California and then onto Camp White, Oregon, and fought in the Asiatic Pacific Theater of Operations. His enlistment record identifies him as an "American Indian, Citizen". Ben attained the rank of Private and was discharged on January 9, 1946 at Camp Beale, California. He was issued the World War II Victory Medal, WW II Lapel Button, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, Bronze Star, and Combat Infantry Badge. Ben Guzman died on March 11, 1995 and he is buried in the San Joaquin National Cemetery in Gustin, Ca. (Plot C-3 0 517).


Private First Class Frank Harry Guzman
U.S. Army, 345th Infantry Regiment, 87th Infantry Division and 82nd Airborne Division

Frank was the younger brother of Bennie Guzman and he was born on April 2, 1926 in Pleasanton. Muwekma Ohlone Indians Dario Marine and Cecelia Armija were his godparents. Frank and his brother Bennie were photographed with their uncle Toney Guzman by anthropologist C. Hart Merriam in September 1934.

Frank's enlistment record identified him as an "American Indian, citizen" and that he enlisted at the San Francisco Presidio. Frank served from July 21, 1944 to June 1946 as a Light Machine Gunner in the unattached 345th Infantry Regiment, 87th Infantry Division that was during the war assigned to the III Corps, VII Corps, XII Corps of General Patton's 3rd Army (25 November 1944), XV Corps of the 7th Army, VII Corps of the 1st Army and the VIII Corps of the 9th Army during the European Theater of Operations (October 1944 - May 1945). Frank was also briefly assigned to the 82nd Airborne Division and received his Parachute Badge.

On December 15, 1944, the 345th Infantry Regiment was in the vicinity of Rimling, France and by December 17th the regiment took the town of Medelsheim, Germany. By December 26th the Germans had broken through the American defenses along the German-Belgian border between Malmedy, Belgium and Echternach, Luxembourg and create a fifty-five mile salient through the Ardennes Forest. The 345th was sent to the Cathedral city of Rheims to prevent a German breakthrough there and by December 28th the regiment was reassigned to General Patton's Third Army. On 29 December 29th the 345th Infantry Regiment was again on the road bound for an assembly area in the Luchie Woods 19 kilometers southwest of Moircy, Belgium.

The Battle of the Bulge which lasted from December 16, 1944 to January 28, 1945 was the largest land battle of World War II in which the United States participated. More than a million men fought in this battle including some 600,000 Germans, 500,000 Americans, and 55,000 British. At the conclusion of the battle the casualties were as follows: 81,000 U.S. with 19,000 killed, 1,400 British with 200 killed, and 100,000 Germans killed, wounded or captured.

Frank was engaged in the Rhineland and Central Europe campaigns. He received the Army Presidential Unit Citation Ribbon, Combat Infantry Badge, European, Africa and Middle Eastern Campaign Medal (Three Bronze Stars for Campaigns), Good Conduct Medal, American Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, Army of Occupation Medal (Berlin), Parachute Badge, Marksman Badge for Machine Gun and Rifle. Frank was honorably discharged at Camp Beale, California on June 27, 1946. Frank Guzman was a member of the V.F.W. Post No. 1537 of Tracy, California; he died on March 17, 1982.


Private First Class Ernest Marine
U.S. Army, 58th Field Artillery Battalion, 76th Division.
Ernest Marine was the son of Muwekma Ohlone Indians Lucas Marine and Catherine Peralta. He was born on January 26, 1926 in Centerville. He was enrolled with his father with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on January 11, 1930 (BIA Application # 10299) and his mother had filled out a separate BIA enrollment (Application # 10675). His father had identified his mother and Ernest's mother as "Ohlones" on his BIA Application.

Ernest Marine enlisted on April 13, 1944 at the Monterey Presidio and he served in Europe in the 58th Field Artillery Battalion and Tank Battalion in the 76th Division and fought in the Rhineland (September 15, 1944 - March 21, 1945), Ardennes-Alsace (Battle of the Bulge, Bastogne, Belgium, December 16, 1944 - January 25, 1945) and Central Europe Campaigns (March 22, 1945 - May 11, 1945). Ernest enrolled with his father Lucas Marine during the second BIA enrollment period on December 23, 1950. Ernest Marine was honorably discharged at Camp Beale on June 15, 1946. After the war he spent most of his life living with his aunt Trina Thompson Ruano in Newark and he passed away on October 20, 1977 in Sacramento.


Private First Class Filbert S. Marine
U.S. Army, Battery B, 226th Field Artillery Battalion

Filbert was the last child born on the Alisal Rancheria on December 31, 1915. Both of his parents Dario Marine and Catherine Peralta were Muwekma Ohlone Indians. His godparents were also Muwekma Ohlone Indians Franklin Guzman who served in the Marine Corps during WWI and Francisca Guzman. Filbert and his siblings were enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on their father's BIA Application # 10677 on March 11, 1932.

Filbert enlisted in the Army on February 18, 1942 at the Presidio of Monterey. His enlistment record identifies him as "American Indian, citizen." He fought in the Pacific Theater and was assigned to the 226th Field Artillery Battalion, Battery B. His unit was assigned to XXIV Corps during the Battle of Leyte in the Philippines. The Marines that took part in the Leyte landings were elements of the VAC Artillery, which had been attached to the XXIV Corps earlier in 1944, while still at Hawaii. The Marine complement consisted of the 5th 155mm Howitzer Battalion; the 11th 155mm Gun Battalion, and Headquarters Battery. Army field artillery battalions in the XXIV Corps were the 198th Field Artillery Battalion (155mm Howitzer), the 226th Field Artillery Battalion (155mm Gun), and the 287th Field Artillery Battalion (Observation).

The Marine artillery elements assigned to the XXIV Corps, as well as the 226th Field Artillery Battalion had been formed from former seacoast artillery units; though familiar with heavy artillery, the men had received only rudimentary field artillery training. Prior to the departure of these units from Hawaii, the Marine artillery had undergone intensive field artillery training. Embarkation of personnel from Hawaii was accomplished between 6 and 14 September 1944.

The island of Leyte, lying in the Visayas Group of the Central Philippines, is 115 miles in length and varies in width from 15 to 40 miles. The main mountain range runs the entire length of the island from north to south, leaving a wide coastal plain along the east coast. The Sixth Army troops for Operation KING II, code name for the invasion of Leyte, were composed of the X and XXIV Corps and the 6th Ranger Battalion. The X Corps included the 1st Cavalry Division and the 24th Infantry Division; the XXIV Corps consisted of the 7th and 96th Infantry Divisions. After the Leyte (20 October 1944) Philippine Campaign ended, the 226th Field Artillery Battalion continued on and participated in the Okinawa Campaign (14 June 1945). Filbert's unit may have gone from Camp Forrest, Tennessee to Fort Oglethorpe Georgia to Fort Sill, Oklahoma to Camp Stoneman, California to Maui to Oahu to Molokai to Eniwetok to Manus to Leyte to Samar and ended up on (Ryukyus) Okinawa in 1945.

Filbert was issued the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, Good Conduct Medal, Philippines Liberation Medal, World War II Victory Medal, and Philippine Liberation Medal and was honorable discharged on November 24, 1945 with the rank of Tech. 5. He died in Sacramento on March 31, 1953 and was buried in the military section (Veteran's Plot) of the City of Sacramento Cemetery.


Staff Sergeant Lawrence Domingo, Marine
U.S. Marine Corps, 3rd Marine Parachute Battalion

Domingo was the younger brother of Filbert Marine and he was born on May 4, 1919 in Centerville. He was one of the last Muwekma Ohlone Indians to be baptized at Mission San Jose. He was enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on his father's BIA Application # 10677 on March 11, 1932. As mentioned earlier he was also sent to Indian Boarding School at Sherman Institute, Riverside, California in 1931 and graduated from there in 1939. He also met his future wife Pansy Potts from the Maidu Tribe while attending Sherman Institute.

After leaving Sherman Institute, Domingo returned to the Bay Area and enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps in January 1940 in San Francisco (Serial No. 299599). He was later assigned to the 2nd Marine Brigade and on August 2, 1942, Lawrence was promoted to a Line Sergeant. According to his son, Lawrence Marine, Jr., he was in the 1st Marine Division as a "Para-Marine" or Marine paratrooper. Although his military records are not clear he was possibly assigned to the 1st Marine Parachute Regiment, 3rd Marine Parachute Battalion which was formed in early 1941 near San Diego). Although the Para-Marines were never dropped by parachute into combat, they were utilized during beach raids in the Pacific Theater, including on August 7, 1942 on Guadalcanal and by amphibious landing craft on the island of Gavutu 20 miles to the north.

Domingo was later assigned to anti-aircraft batteries and was engaged in the following major battles, engagements, and ports from January 2, 1942 - November 8, 1945: Hawaiian Islands Area, American Samoan Islands, Wellington, New Zealand, Guadalcanal, B.S.I (British Solomon Islands, New Georgia), Eniwetok, Marshall Islands, Ulithi, Caroline Islands, Okinawa, and Ryukyu (southern Japanese Islands). The Battle of Eniwetok was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought February 17, 1944 - February 23, 1944 on Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall Islands. The invasion of Eniwetok followed the American success in the battle of Kwajalein to the southeast. Capture of Eniwetok would provide an airfield and harbor to support attacks on the Mariana Islands to the northwest. Battle of Okinawa was the largest amphibious invasion of the Pacific campaign and the last major campaign of the Pacific War. More ships were used, more troops put ashore, more supplies transported, more bombs dropped, more naval guns fired against shore targets than any other operation in the Pacific. The fleet had lost 763 aircraft. Casualties totaled more than 38,000 Americans wounded and 12,000 [including nearly 5,000 Navy dead and almost 8,000 Marine and Army dead, killed or missing], more than 107,000 Japanese and Okinawan conscripts killed, and perhaps 100,000 Okinawan civilians who perished in the battle.

Lawrence Marine was honorable discharged at Treasure Island on November 20, 1946 after having an extended two year reenlistment. He received the Presidential Unit Citation, Good Conduct Medal, and Good Conduct Medal Bar No. (1), Honorable Discharge Button, Honorable Service Button. Lawrence Domingo Marine enrolled during the second BIA enrollment period on October 12, 1950. Domingo died on May 21, 1988 and was buried in Woodland, California.


Sergeant Henry Vernon Marshall
U.S. Marine Corps , 1st Marine Division

Henry Marshall was born in Newark on June 27, 1925. He was the son of Muwekma Ohlone Indian Henry Marshall, Sr. who was the son of Magdalena Armija Marshall Thompson. Henry Marshall, Jr. was a member of the Verona band of Alameda County. His grandmother, Magdalena enrolled her children with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on October 7, 1930 (BIA Application # 10296). Henry Marshall, Jr. enlisted in the United States Marine Corps and was assigned to the 1st Marine Division (Guadalcanal). He fought in the Pacific Theater of Operations and was issued the Navy Presidential Unit Citation with one Bronze Star, American Campaign Medal, Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal, Rifle Sharpshooter Badge, and a three tiered Weapons(?) qualifying badge. His father enrolled the family during the third BIA enrollment period on May 7, 1969 as part of the California Indian Claims Judgment Act. Henry Vernon Marshall passed away on September 24, 1986.


Sergeant Arthur M. Pena
U.S. Army, Company A, 155th Engineer Combat Battalion

Arthur was born in Crockett, California on September 4, 1924. His mother was Erolinda Santos (Juarez/Saunders) Pena Corral who was a member of the Muwekma Ohlone Verona Band Indian Community. Arthur was enrolled along with his mother and siblings with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on his great-aunt Maggie Pinos Juarez's BIA Application # 10676 on March 18, 1932.

Arthur Pena enlisted on April 13, 1943 at the San Francisco Presidio and served in the unattached 155th Engineering Combat Battalion in the Pacific Theater. He served in the Southern Philippines and Western Pacific Campaigns (Leyte October 17, 1944 - July 1, 1945 and Western Pacific June 15, 1944 - September 2, 1945) and his battalion was sent to Guadalcanal (August 12 - August 24, 1944). From Guadalcanal, the battalion went on to Palau, Althea, New Caledonia (February 20, 1945), Southern Philippines (May 16, 1945) and Japan (September 8, 1944 - September 25, 1945). Arthur Pena was honorably discharged at Camp Beale, Marysville, California on February 2, 1946 and he was issued the Philippines Liberation Ribbon, Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal, American Campaign Medal, Good Conduct Medal and World War II Victory Medal.

Arthur reenlisted on August 7, 1946 and served in Germany in Company C 793rd Military Police Battalion and he also went through the European Command Intelligence School. He was honorably discharged on March 25, 1955 and then reenlisted again on March 26, 1955. After serving another two years, Arthur was discharged at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri on December 9, 1957. Arthur was also issued the UN Service Medal, National Defense Service Medal, and Army of Occupation Germany Medal. On December 27, 1957, he enrolled his family with the Bureau of Indian Affairs during the second enrollment period.


Private First Class Robert P. Corral
U.S. Army, Infantry School Headquarters Regiment, Ft. Benning, GA.

Robert was born in Crockett, California on June 1, 1926 and was the younger brother of Arthur Pena. His mother was Erolinda Santos (Juarez/Saunders) Pena Corral who was a member of the Muwekma Ohlone Verona Band Indian Community. Robert was enrolled along with his mother and siblings with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on his great-aunt Maggie Pinos Juarez's BIA Application # 10676 on March 18, 1932.

Robert enlisted at the San Francisco Presidio on December 18, 1944 and was honorably discharged on November 13, 1946. At Fort Benning, Georgia Robert completed six parachute jumps and was awarded a Parachutist Badge, World War II Victory Medal, Good Conduct Medal, and American Campaign Medal.

On May 16, 1955 Robert enrolled himself and his family during the second BIA enrollment period. During the third BIA enrollment period on April 30, 1969, Robert enrolled his family as "Ohlone Indians" with the BIA as part of the California Indian Claims Judgment (Application # 21123). During the 1990s Robert P. Corral served as a Muwekma Ohlone Tribal Elder and he passed away on June 28, 1996 in Stockton.


Private First Class Enos Marine Sanchez
U.S. Army, Company. M, 354th Infantry Regiment, 89th Infantry Division

Enos Sanchez was born on February 1, 1910 near the Alisal Rancheria in Sunol and his birth certificate identified him as "California Indian". Enos and his younger siblings were enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on March 18, 1932 (BIA Application # 10680). His mother was Ramona Marine who was a member of the Verona Band of Alameda County.

Enos enlisted on June 29, 1942 in Sacramento and was shipped to Camp Carson, Colorado Springs and later that year served in Greenland and Iceland. The 89th Division was called the "Rolling W" standing for MW (Middle West). After landing at Le Havre, France, the 89th received orders to move into Mersch, Luxembourg (March 8, 1945). The 89th was assigned to the XII Corps of General Patton's Third Army. Crossing into Germany the 89th met the German 2nd Panzer Division and seven Volksgrenadier Divisions and by March 26, 1945, the 89th crossed the Rhine River. Enos' MOS was a Heavy Machine Gunner (605). On April 4, 1945, the 89th was involved in the liberation of the Ohrdruf Death Camp, which was part of the Buchenwald concentration camp network. Enos' unit fought in the Rhineland and Central Europe (GO WO WD 45) Campaigns and he was awarded the Combat Infantry Badge (31), Good Conduct Medal, American Campaign Medal, European, African, Middle Eastern Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal (TWX WD 23 October 45), and Marksman M1 Rifle September 42 (55). Enos was honorable discharged on November 15, 1945 and separated from Camp Beale, California.

In 1965 Enos was identified along with his family and fellow Tribal members by the American Indian Historical Society on a list of "Ohlone Contacts and Ohlone Members". He died on July 19, 1995 at the age of 85 and was buried at the Calvary Cemetery in San Jose California.


Technician Fourth Grade Robert R. Sanchez
U.S. Army, 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division.

Robert Sanchez was the younger brother of Enos Sanchez and he was born in Sunol near the Alisal Rancheria on March 26, 1917. Robert and his siblings were enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on March 18, 1932 (BIA Application # 10680).

Robert enlisted in October 1942 and he volunteered to join the 82nd Airborne Division, 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment. On June 5-6, 1944, the paratroopers of the 82nd's three parachute infantry regiments and reinforced glider infantry regiment boarded hundreds of transport planes and gliders and, began the largest airborne assault in history. They were among the first soldiers to fight in Normandy, France. The Division air-assaulted behind Utah Beach, Normandy, France, between Sainte-Mere-Eglise and Carentan on June 6, 1944, being reinforced by the 325th Glider Regiment the next day. The 82nd Airborne Division was reinforced by both the attached 507th PIR and the 508th PIR.

The 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment (a.k.a. the Red Devils) whose battle cry was "Diablo!" was originally an organic part of the 2nd (Battalion) Airborne Infantry Brigade that was attached to the 82nd Airborne Division through most of its time in combat. Campaigns include Normandy (D-Day June 6, 1944), Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace (France), and Central Europe (Nijmegen-Arnhem Holland, and Belgium). By July 1945, the 82nd Airborne was moved to Berlin to occupy the American Sector. The 508th, which had fought along side the 82nd since Normandy, was sent to occupy Frankfort, Germany. For his service in the 508th PIR, Robert Sanchez was issued the Distinguished (Presidential) Unit Citation, Combat Infantry Badge, Parachute Badge, European Africa and Middle Eastern Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, Army of Occupation Medal (Berlin), Belgian Citation (Lanyard) and French Citation (Lanyard).

The 82nd Airborne Division and the 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment were issued the Distinguished (Presidential) Unit Citations for actions during the Normandy Campaign. "The 508th Parachute Infantry is cited for outstanding performance of duty in action against the enemy between 6 and 9 of June 1944, during the invasion of France. … The courage and devotion to duty shown by members of the 508th Parachute Infantry are worthy of emulation and reflect the highest traditions of the Army of the United States. The Netherlands Citation was issued by the Dutch Government to the 82nd Airborne and its attached divisions (508th PIR) on October 8, 1945 for airborne operations and combat actions in the central part of the Netherlands (Nijmegen) during the period from September 17, 1944 to October 4, 1944. The 82nd Airborne Division became the first non-Dutch military unit to be awarded the Militarie Willems Orde, Degree of Knight Fourth Class to wear the Orange Lanyard of the Royal Netherlands Army.

The Belgian Citation (Lanyard) was issued by the Belgian Government to the 82nd Airborne Division with the 508th Parachute Infantry attached "has distinguished itself particularly in the Battle of the Ardennes" from December 17, 1944 - December 31, 1944.
The French Citation (Lanyard) was issued to the 508th Parachute Infantry by the Government of France. "The President of the Provisional Government of the French Republic Cites to the Order of the Army: 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment: A magnificent unit, reputed for the heroism and spirit of sacrifice of its combatants and which made proof of the greatest military qualities during the battle of Normandy" (June 6, 1944 - June 20, 1944). This citation includes the award of the Croix de Guerre with Palm.

O. B. Hill from the 508th P.I.R. Association, 82nd Airborne Division wrote: "2,056 men of the 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment (attached to the 82nd Airborne) jumped into Normandy on D-Day, and on July 15, only 918 returned. The rest had been killed, captured or wounded". Robert was honorably discharged on February 2, 1948 and spent most his life in the greater Bay Area. Robert Sanchez was one of the early prime movers and active Elders in the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe. He passed away on April 26, 1999.


Technical Sergeant Daniel G. Santos
U.S. Army, 41st Infantry Division

Daniel Santos (Saunders/Juarez) was born in Sunol near the Alisal Rancheria on January 21, 1917. Both his parents Joseph Saunders and Erolinda Santos were members of the Verona Band of Alameda County. Daniel was enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs along with his mother and siblings under his great-aunts' BIA Application (# 10676) on March 18, 1932. Daniel Juarez (Santos) received a draft notice dated March 14, 1941, from Local Board No. 36 located in Manteca, California. It was addressed to Mr. Dan George Juarez, Route, Box 29A, Tracy, California. The letter stated:

We received a call for 70 men to be inducted from this area on March 27th 1941. … it is probable that you will be included in the group, and we are therefore taking this opportunity of notifying you, before (?) official order is issued, so that you may make your plans accordingly.

Daniel enlisted on March 27, 1941 at Sacramento before the war was declared. The Jungleer or Sunset Division was Federalized on September 16, 1940. By December 7, 1941, the 41st Division was ready. It continued the series of "firsts" by being the first United States Division to deploy to the South Pacific. It became the first American Division sent overseas after Pearl Harbor, the first American Division trained in Jungle Warfare. It spent 45 months overseas (longer than any other Division), and earned the title of "Jungleers". The 41st Division left for Australia in March of 1942. Elements of the division landed January 23, 1943 in Dobodura, New Guinea. On the Island of Biak (May 27, 1944) the American Forces fought the first tank battle of the war against the Japanese destroying seven without loss. The division also fought in the Philippines (January 9, 1945) and fought on Palawan and Sulu Archipelago (March 10, 1945) and arrived in Japan on October 6, 1945. They participated in 3 campaigns (New Guinea, Luzon, and Southern Philippines) and suffered 4,260 casualties.

Former Secretary of Defense Caspar W. Weinberger also served in the 41st Division as an officer. The 41st Division earned three Distinguished (Presidential) Unit Citations. Daniel Santos was honorably discharged in 1945.

Daniel enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs during the second BIA enrollment period on May 23, 1955. He also worked at Leslie Salt Company in Newark and spent his life working on and racing cars. Daniel passed away on April 28, 1980.


Technician Fifth Grade Lawrence Thompson, Sr.
U.S. Army, 640th Tank Destroyer Battalion, 40th Infantry Division

Lorenzo Thompson, Sr. was born in Newark September 9, 1918. His mother Magdalena Armija Thompson was a member of the Verona Band of Alameda County. Lawrence and his siblings enrolled with their mother with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on October 7, 1930.

The 640th Tank Destroyer Battalion was formed at Camp San Luis Obispo on December 19, 1941 as an element of the 40th Infantry Division, and served in the Pacific Theater of Operation. The 640th was activated on March 3, 1941 from National Guard units from California and Utah and was sent overseas on August 23, 1942. The 640th Campaigns included: Bismarck Archipelago, Southern Philippines, and Luzon and were issued 3 Distinguished Unit Citations; Awards: MH-1; DSC-12; DSM-1; SS-245; LM-21; SM-30; BSM-1,036; AM-57.

Lawrence Thompson enlisted at the age of 23 on September 10, 1941 at the San Francisco Presidio. At that time he was living at 2370 Pine St. in San Francisco. His MOS was Cannons S45 and he fought in the following campaigns: Aleutian Islands [Attu and Kiska Island with the 7th Infantry Division], Luzon and Southern Philippines and Eastern Mandates [Marshall Islands, Kwajalein, Eniwetok].

Initially deployed to Hawaii in September 1942, the 640th Tank Destroyer Battalion participated in combat landings at Guadalcanal (February 5, 1944), Cape Gloucester, New Britain (May 3, 1944), Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Commonwealth of the Philippines (January 9, 1945), and Los Negros Islands (March 29, 1945). The 640th Tank Destroyer Campaign Honors include: Bismarck Archipelago [islands of New Guinea] (December 15, 1943 - November 27, 1944), and Luzon and Southern Philippines [GO 33 WD 45] (December 15, 1944 - July 4, 1945). "Seek, Strike, and Destroy," was the motto of the Tank Destroyers.

Lawrence Thompson was honorably discharged on October 2, 1945 at Camp Beale, Marysville, California and was issued the American Defense Service Medal, Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal and Philippine Liberation Ribbon with Bronze Star.

After the war Lawrence Thompson, Sr. and his son Lawrence Thompson, Jr. enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs during the third BIA enrollment period on June 24, 1969. Later during the early 1990s Lawrence, Sr. served on the Muwekma Tribal Council. He passed away in November 1999



Muwekma Service in the U.S. Armed Forces 1950s, Viet Nam War to the Iraq Campaign

During the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s Muwekma men served in Korea, Viet-Nam and other campaigns.

Candelario T. Martinez served in the United States Marine Corps during the Korean War.

Corporal Ruben Cota Arellano, Sr., U.S. Army, Medical Corps, Specialist 4 Headquarters Battery 1st Target Acquisition Battalion, 25th Artillery, APO 2, July 5, 1960 - July 4, 1966, Korea.

Staff Sergeant Lawrence Mason Marine served in the United States Marine Corps from 1959-1965 and was a Staff Sergeant serving in Viet-Nam with 3rd Tank Battalion, 3rd Marine Division, and Company C, 3rd Force Reconnaissance Battalion from 1960-1961. Lawrence also served on the Muwekma Tribal Council.

Marvin Lee Marine (younger brother of Lawrence Mason Marine) also served in the Viet-Nam War in the U.S. Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade. Muwekma Elder Lawrence Mason Marine and his family are enrolled members of the Muwekma Tribe.

Specialist 5 Karl Thompson, U.S. Army, 43rd Engineer Battalion. 931st Engineer Group. Awarded the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal (Korea), May 8, 1968 - May 7, 1971.

Tom M. Alvarez, Sr., U.S. Army, Medical Corps, 1965 - 1967, Vietnam, recipient of Soldier's Medal.

Specialist 4 Frank Y. Ruano, Sr., U.S. Army, 56th Artillery, 1965 - July 25, 1971, Vietnam.

Sergeant Robert C. Martinez, Sr., 14th Armored Cavalry Regiment U.S. Army, 7th U.S. Army, May 22, 1968 - May 14, 1970.

Rick Martinez, Vietnam

John A. Massiatt, Airman, U.S. Air Force January 1, 1968 - October 1, 1969.

Thomas Joseph Marshall, U.S. Army, Vietnam Era, deceased.

Specialist 4 Richard A. Juarez, U.S. Army, 589th Transportation Company., Fort Eustis, Virginia., January 25, 1971 - October 30, 1973.

Staff Sergeant Jay P. Massiet, U.S. Air Force 146th Airlift Wing, Van Nuys Air National Guard, June 1975 - January 1988

Sergeant Michael F. Galvan, Jr.,U.S. Air Force, 95th Reconnaisance Squadron, 1977 - 1997 (Desert Storm Campaign)

Tracie Massiet Lents, U.S. Air Force, 1979 - 1983

Paul Guzman (Service Records n/a)

Private First Class John J. Cambra, Jr., U.S. Army, Company C, 4th Battalion, 30th Infantry and Company B, 2nd Battalion, 159th Infantry, 1991 - 1994

Lance Corporal David J. Splan, U.S. Marine Corps, 1993 - 2001

Airman 1st Class Cory Massiet, U.S. Air Force, 1994 - 1997

In the 1990s, Michael Galvan, son of Benjamin and Jenny Galvan, and Thomas Alvarez, Jr. both served in Desert Storm. Presently, Jesse Calles, the grandson of Muwekma Elder Faye Thompson Frei is serving in the U.S. Army in Iraq since December 2005 in the Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, Fires Brigade 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized), Awarded the Army Commendation Medal 2006. 2004 - Present. Jesse served in Baghdad, Iraq since December 2005.

Angela Galvan, the granddaughter of Muwekma Elder Jenny Galvan had recently served in Iraq in the U.S. Marine Corps, Corporal/E-4, 1st Marine Logistics Group, 7th Engineer Support Battalion, Support Company Motor Transportation Platoon, May 27, 2003 - Presently serving in Iraq (twice deployed). Campaigns and Citations: OIF 2 Fallujah Campaign in Feb 2004 - Sept 2004 and OIF 3-6 Sept 2005 - Mar 2006, Combat Action Ribbon for operations on Michigan ASR (Alternative Supply Route) and an impact Navy Marine Corps Achievement Medal for operations in Haditha (December 2005); also involved during OIF 3-6.

Jay P. Massiet, Jr., U.S. Army, Second Tour in Iraq; issued a Purple Heart.


About the Author

Alan Leventhal is a trained archaeologist/anthropologist/ethnohistorian. During the early 1970s, he had worked at the American Museum of Natural History in New York in the departments of Anthropology and Education. Mr. Leventhal completed his undergraduate degree in Anthropology at City College of New York and did graduate work at City University of New York and University of Nevada, Reno. He had also worked as a state archaeologist at the Nevada Archaeological Survey in University of Nevada, Reno, and taught classes there.

In 1978, Alan briefly worked as a Forest Service archaeologist in the Lassen National Forest before coming to San Jose State University in 1978 where he spent nine years in the Department of Anthropology as the Anthropology Lab Director. Alan completed his Master's Thesis at SJSU in Social Sciences with an emphasis in Anthropology/Archaeology. His thesis is entitled A Reinterpretation of Some Bay Area Shellmound Sites: A View from the Mortuary Complex from CA-ALA-329, the Ryan Mound. He is also the author of numerous publications on Bay Area pre-history, California Indian ethnohistory, ancient and modern Native American DNA, that include stone tool analyzes spanning 12,000 years of human history in the SF Bay Area, work on the Indian Neophyte Cemetery at the Third Mission Santa Clara (1788-1818), and more recently a contact period cemetery site in Sunol with the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe an SFPUC.

Presently Alan works as on the administrative staff in the Office of the Dean, College of Social Sciences at SJSU and continues to teach as a lecturer about contemporary Native American Issues and topics on advanced methods and theory in archaeology in the Anthropology Department. He has lectured and conducted archaeological investigations in New York, Georgia, Nevada, and California.

For the past 37 years he has worked with the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe of the San Francisco Bay Region as a tribal ethnohistorian and senior archaeologist. He has also research tribal genealogies through the censuses and mission records as well as California Indian military service spanning all the major theaters from WWI through the recent conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan. Mr. Leventhal has also worked as a volunteer (1992-1998) on the Congressionally created (HR 2144) Advisory Council on California Indian Policy's Unrecognized Tribal Task Force and was one of the few advocates for the Previously Federally Recognized Tribes in the state.

He has also worked closely with other tribes throughout California as they seek restoration and reaffirmation of their tribal status. Mr. Leventhal has also served as an ethnohistorian and archaeologist for two other previously Federally Recognized tribes: the Amah-Mutsun Tribal Band of Costanoan Indians (since 1989) centered around Mission San Juan Bautista and Ohlone-Costanoan/Esselen Nation (since 1992) centered around Mission San Carlos in Monterey.



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Updated 19 October 2017